Introductory Grammars

There are dozens of introductory textbooks for biblical Greek. Typically the instructor will assign an introductory textbook of their preference, but we have listed five of the more popular choices below.

  • Croy, Clayton. A Primer of Biblical Greek. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2011.

  • Machen, J. Gresham and Dan G. McCartney. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson, 2003.

  • Mounce, William D. Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar. 3d ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009.

  • Porter, Stanley E., Jeffrey T. Reed, and Matthew Brook O’Donnell. Fundamentals of New Testament Greek. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2010.

 Intermediate and Advanced Grammars

  • Blass, F., and A. Debrunner. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Translated and revised by Robert W. Funk. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961. Known as “BDF” for the authors’ last names, this remains the premier reference grammar for New Testament Greek. It is recommended for advanced users.

  • Moulton, James H., Wilbert F. Howard, and Nigel Turner. A Grammar of New Testament Greek. 4 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1929-1976. Begun in 1906, this series is an extended treatment of New Testament Greek grammar, which spans the greater part of the twentieth century. The topics covered in these volumes include accidence, morphology, syntax, and style.

  • Smyth, Herbert Weir. A Greek Grammar for Colleges. Revised by Gordon M. Messing. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1956. Smyth’s grammar focuses on classical Greek, though it still remains useful for those studying Biblical Greek. The first edition is available online at

  • Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996. Wallace’s grammar has established itself as a very useful and accessible reference grammar. It includes numerous examples from the Greek New Testament and is often used as a second-year textbook for biblical Greek.

The following two grammars are older but still valuable for Greek exegesis:

  • Dana, H. E., and Julius R. Mantey. A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament. New York: Macmillan, 1927, 1955.

  • Robertson, A. T. A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research. 4th ed. Nashville: Broadman, 1934.


  • Bauer, Walter. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Translated by William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich. Revised and edited by Frederick William Danker. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. Known as “BDAG” after the authors last names: Bauer, Danker, Arndt, and Gingrich. BDAG is the landmark Greek lexicon for the New Testament. Every student of biblical Greek should be well-acquainted with this resource.

  • Danker, Frederick William. The Concise Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. This is a much smaller dictionary than BDAG, but still a useful lexicon for finding glosses and short definitions for learning Greek and translating. This lexicon is not an abridgement of BDAG and so complements BDAG as well.

  • Kittel, Gerhard and Gerhard Friedrich, eds. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Translated by G. W. Bromiley. 10 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-76. This is a translation of the classic German Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament, which is a monument to scholarship from the mid-twentieth century, though now beginning to show signs of its age. Known simply as Kittel or TDNT, this dictionary treats theologically significant words (over 2,300 of them) based on their context in the New Testament, the Septuagint, and other ancient literature. It reads less like a traditional lexicon and more like essays on individual Greek words and their cognates.

  • Lampe, G. W. H. A Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961. This is the lexicon to consult for Greek writings from the early church (Patristic period). It contains some Greek words not included in LSJ or BDAG.

  • Liddell, Henry George, and Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th ed. Revised by Henry Stuart Jones. Supplement by P. Glare. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996. This dictionary, known as “LSJ” (for Liddell-Scott-Jones), is the standard lexicon for the study of ancient Greek. The lexicon covers a wide range of Greek literature spanning multiple time periods and regions. Thus, though it is an advanced lexicon, it is not specialized and so students will need to consult another lexicon on this list for the Greek of the Septuagint, New Testament, or Patristic writings. LSJ is available online at

  • Louw, Johannes P., and Eugene A. Nida. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains. 2d ed. 2 vols. New York: United Bible Societies, 1989. Unlike traditional lexica which arrange entries in alphabetical order, Louw-Nida organizes its entries based on their meanings, or semantic domains. Because of this, L-N is a very useful resource for understanding the differences and similarities in synonyms. The first volume contains the primary content and the second volume contains Greek, English, and Scripture indices.

  • Lust, Johan, Erik Eynikel and Katrin Hauspie, eds. Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. rev. ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2003.

  • Muraoka, Takamitsu. A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint. Louvain: Peeters, 2009.

Biblical Texts

  • Aland, Barbara et al., eds. Novum Testamentum Graece. 28th ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012. Nicknamed “Nestle-Aland” (based on the work of Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle and Kurt Aland), this is the premier academic edition of the Greek New Testament. Now in its 28th edition, Nestle-Aland incorporates the contributions of recent text-critical research, including the Editio Critica Maior (ECM) for the Catholic Epistles. Aimed at advanced students and scholars. The basic text (without the textual apparatus) is available at

  • Aland, Barbara et al., eds. The Greek New Testament. 5th ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft and United Bible Societies, 2014.  This edition of the New Testament contains the same basic text as Nestle-Aland, but the textual apparatus is arranged with students and translators in mind.

  • Septuaginta. Vetus Testamentum Graecum Auctoritate Academiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum. 23 volumes. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1931–. Known as the Göttingen Septuagint, this massive critical edition encompasses much of the Septuagint, but does not yet completely cover the whole text as some volumes have yet to be published.

  • Rahlfs, Alfred. Septuaginta. 2d ed. Revised by R. Hanhart. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2007. This is a semi-critical edition of the Septuagint originally edited by Alfred Rahlfs and recently updated by Robert Hanhart. This covers the entire Septuagint and is only one-volume, which makes it a good complementary resource to the Göttingen Septuagint.

​Other Tools and Resources

  • Baylor Handbook on the Greek New Testament Series. Waco, Tex.: Baylor University Press, 2003–.

  • Fee, Gordon D. New Testament Exegesis: A Handbook for Students and Pastors. 3rd ed. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 2002.

  • Goodrich, Richard J. and Albert L. Lukaszewski. A Reader’s Greek New Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007.

  • Metzger, Bruce M. Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek. 3rd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1998.

  • Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. 2nd ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2002.

  • Moulton, W. F. and A. S. Geden. A Concordance to the Greek Testament. Revised by I. H. Marshall. 6th ed. London: T&T Clark, 2002.

  • Lamerson, Samuel. English Grammar to Ace New Testament Greek. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2004.

  • Zacharias, H. Daniel. ParseGreek. App available for Android and iPhone. 2012.

  • Zacharias, H. Daniel. The Singing Grammarian: Songs and Visual Presentations for Learning New Testament Greek Grammar. Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic, 2011.

  • Zerwick, Max and Mary Grosvenor. A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament. 5th ed. Rome: Pontificio Instituto Biblico, 2010.