Resources for the Study of Islam
Paula Youngman Skreslet
William Smith Morton Library
The resources on this list could of course be applied to a wide range of research issues. But I have grouped them as responses to typical reference queries in Islamic studies, for the purpose of illustration.

What are the classic scholarly bibliographic sources in Islamic studies?

  • GAL : Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur / Carl Brockelmann. Zweite den supplementbänden angepasste Auflage (Leiden: Brill 1943-49) 5v
  • GAS : Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums / Fuat Sezgin (Leiden: Brill 1967- ) 12v+ Contains catalog of Arabic manuscripts in vol.6, “Bibliotheken und Sammlungen arabischer Handschiften,” pp. 311-466
  • Fihrist al-‘ulum or Kitab al-fihrist al-nadim / Muhammad ibn Ishaq al-Nadim (d.c. 990); published as The Fihrist: a 10th century AD survey of Islamic culture / Bayard Dodge (Great Books of the Islamic World 1998)
  • Persian literature / C.A. Storey (Luzac 1927) 5v
  • Die Geschichtsschreiber der Osmanen / Franz Babinger (Harrassowitz 1927)
  • World survey of Islamic manuscripts / Geoffrey Roper (Brill, 1991-94) 4v
  • Encyclopedia of Arabic literature / Meisami and Starkey (Routledge 1998) 2v
  • Cambridge history of Arabic literature / AFL Beeston (CUP 1983-92) 4v
  • Islam : an historical introduction / Gerhard Endress (2nd ed., Columbia UP 2004) Contains classified and annotated bibliography of the classic sources, in Ch. 9

I want a scholarly but readable introduction to Islam. What do you recommend?

  • Try subject-area analytical bibliographies
  • Or book reviews in journals, e.g :
    • Muslim World (Hartford)
    • Muslim World Book Review (Leicester)
  • Some reliable general introductions
    • Islam : faith and history / Mahmoud Ayoub (Oneworld 2004)
    • A new introduction to Islam / Daniel Brown (Blackwell 2004)
    • Islam: the straight path / John L. Esposito (3rd ed., OUP 2005)
    • Introduction to Islam / Frederick Denny (3rd ed., Prentice Hall 2006) – good bibliography

What is the difference between shari‘a and fiqh?

  • EI2 : Encyclopaedia of Islam / H.A.R. Gibb (2nd ed., Brill 1954-2004) 12v; EI3 now under way
  • EI2 index volumes : Index of proper names, Index of subjects (taxonomy), Glossary and index of terms (vocabulary); still incomplete
  • Shorter encyclopedia of Islam / Gibb & Kramers; articles from EI1
  • Islamic desk reference / van Donzel (Brill 1994)
  • Oxford dictionary of Islam / John Esposito (OUP 2003)

Do Muslims exegete the Qur’an like we do the Bible?

  • Encyclopedia of religion, 2nd ed., edited by Lindsay Jones (Macmillan 2005) “Tafsir” by Andrew Rippin
  • Concordance of the Qur’an in English / Hanna Kassis (UC Berkeley 1983)
  • Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an / Jane Dammen McAuliffe (Brill 2001-06) 6v
  • Cambridge companion to the Qur’an / JD McAuliffe (CUP 2006) Part IV, ch. 9
  • Bibel und Koran : eine Synopse gemeinsamer Überlieferungen / Johann-Dietrich Thyen (Böhlau 2000)

Who are the Sunnis and Shi‘ites? Are they like Catholics and Protestants?

  • Oxford encyclopedia of the modern Islamic world / John L. Esposito (OUP 1995) 4v
  • History resources:
    • Cambridge history of Islam (CUP 1970) 2v
    • Cambridge illustrated history of the Islamic world / Francis Robinson (CUP 1996) Rulers of the Islamic world chart, pp. 308-310
    • Muslim almanac / Azim Nanji (Gale 1996)
    • Historical atlas of Islam / Hugh Kennedy (Brill 2002)
    • Historical atlas of Islam / Ruthven and Nanji (Harvard 2004)
  • Political Islam: countless current materials in English in any academic collection

Who are the most important Islamic theologians and philosophers?

  • Dictionary of the Middle Ages / Joseph R. Strayer (Scribner 1982-89) “Islam, Religion” by Gerhard Böwering
  • Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy / Edward Craig (Routledge, 1998)
  • Encyclopedia of philosophy / Donald M. Borchert (Macmillan 2006)
  • Biographical encyclopedia of Islamic philosophy / Oliver Leaman (Thoemmes 2006) 2v

I’m leading a group on interfaith prayer and spirituality. What resources can I use for worship in Islam?

  • Library catalogs (will include lots of DVDs and videos) according to LCSH:
    • Religious life–Islam or Worship–Islam
    • Prayer–Islam or God (Islam)–Worship and love
    • Spirituality–Islam or Mysticism–Islam
  • Will lead you to works belonging to quality text or monograph series, such as:
    • Knowledge of God in classical Sufism / John Renard (Classics of Western Spirituality series, Paulist Press 2004)
    • Historical dictionary of Sufism / John Renard (Scarecrow 2005)
  • Other valuable monograph and text series:
    • Handbuch der Orientalistik (Brill); e.g., Wolfgang Behn, Concise biographical companion to Index Islamicus (2004-06), 1. Abt, 76. Bd (3v)
    • Great Books of Islamic Civilization – Centre for Muslim Contribution to Civilization in Qatar (Garnet)
    • Islamic Translation Series – Brigham Young University (Univ of Chicago Press)
    • Islamic Texts Society – Cambridge UK
  • Primary text collections and anthologies :
    • Classical Islam / Calder, Mojaddedi and Rippin (Routledge 2003)
    • Windows on the house of Islam / John Renard (UC Berkeley 1988)
    • A reader on Islam / Arthur Jeffery (Mouton 1962)

I’m writing a paper on scholasticism, Thomas Aquinas and Muhammad al-Ghazzali; I need journal articles and books...

  • Index Islamicus
  • Abstracta islamica (in Revue des études islamiques) 1927-1994
  • Iter (medieval & Renaissance studies, 400-1700 CE)
  • General scholarly indexes : Humanities Index, Philosopher’s Index, Historical Abstracts, Social Sciences Index, International Medieval Bibliography, etc.

Aren’t there any websites about Islam that are really legit?

What’s the “best” translation of the Qur’an?
I want to use some readings from Islamic primary sources in teaching my class. They have to be in English translation. How do I find them?

  • The literature of Islam : a guide to the primary sources in English translation / Paula Youngman Skreslet and Rebecca Skreslet (Scarecrow 2006)

Special-purpose sources

  • The Islamic and Christian calendars : AD 622-2222 (AH 1-1650) : a complete guide for converting Christian and Islamic dates and dates of festivals / G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville (Garnet 1995)
  • Vergleichungs-Tabellen zur muslimischen und iranischen Zeitrechung / Ferdinand Wüstenfeld (3rd ed., Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft 1961)
  • Encyclopaedia iranica / Ehsan Yarshater (Routledge & Kegan Paul 1982-)
Islamic Bibliography for the Federal Bureau of Prison
Compiled by Ingrid Mattson, PhD
Professor of Islamic Studies and Christian-Muslim Relations
Director of Islamic Chaplaincy
Hartford Seminary
Disclaimer: I have done my best to compile a list of materials that is practical, Islamically ecumenical and encompassing different levels of literacy and skills. I have attempted to exclude any materials that might be considered extremist, but I did not read every word of every book and do not guarantee their contents to be free of views that might reasonably be considered extremist. The inclusion of these books should not be construed as my endorsement of the views of the authors expressed in these books or elsewhere. I explicitly disclaim any responsibility for the use of these materials to justify any criminal or immoral action.
Obtaining the materials: I have tried to include as much bibliographic information as possible. Most of these materials can be purchased from on-line book sellers. Here are some I have used but I do not endorse any of them nor do I guarantee their integrity or service:

Translations of the Meaning of the Qur’an

  • The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an, translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali (Amana Publications).
  • Thomas Cleary, The Essential Qur’an (Castle Books, 1993).
  • Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur’an.
  • Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall, The Meaning of the Glorious Koran: an explanatory translation. 1930.
  • Kabir Helminski, The Book of Revelations: a sourcebook of selections from the Qur’an with interpretations by Muhammad Asad, Yusuf Ali, and Others. Bristol: The Book Foundation, 2005.

Qur’anic Studies

  • Ahmad Von Denffer, Ahmad, ‘Ulum al-Qur’an: an Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur’an (Leicester: The Islamic Foundation, 1983).
  • Khurram Murad, Way to the Qur’an: a manual on how to approach the Qur’an (UK Islamic Foundation).
  • Toshihiku Izutsu, Ethico-Religious Concepts in the Qur’an (Montreal: McGill University Press, 1966).
  • Ingrid Mattson, The Story of the Qur’an: its history and place in Muslim life (Blackwell, 2007).
  • Michael Sells, Approaching the Qur’an: the early revelations (White Cloud Press, 1999).
  • Fazlur Rahman, Major Themes of the Qur’an (Minneapolis, Chicago: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1980).
  • Sohaib N. Sultan, The Qur’an and Sayings of the Prophet Muammad: Selections Annotated and Explained (VT: Skylight Illuminations, 2007).
  • Abidullah Ghazi, Juz One: Alif Lam Mim: Textbook for the Classroom (Iqra Educational Foundation).
  • Abidullah Ghazi, Juz Two: Sa-Yaqul: Textbook for the Classroom (Iqra Educational Foundation).
  • Abidullah Ghazi, Juz Amma (30) For the Classroom: Vol. 1 (Iqra Educational Foundation).
  • Abidullah Ghazi, Juz Amma (30) For the Classroom: Vol. 2 (Iqra Educational Foundation).
  • Abidullah Ghazi, Seven Surahs for the Classroom: Junior Level (Iqra Educational Foundation).
  • Abidullah Ghazi, Juz Three (3) Tilka ar-Rasul: a study of Part Three of the Qur’an: a Textbook for the Classroom: Senior Level General (Iqra Educational Foundation).
  • Abidullah Ghazi, Juz Three (4) Lantana Lu Al-Birra: a study of Part Four of the Qur’an: a Textbook for the Classroom: Senior Level General (Iqra Educational Foundation).

Qur’anic Arabic and Qur’anic Recitation

  • Hafez Ismail Fakroodin, Learn to Read (Recite) the Qur’an on Your Own: Audio-Visual Course (Iqra Promotions Ltd).
  • Al-Muqri Husaini/Khadri & Khan, Easy Tajweed (with 90 minutes audio tape) (Islamic Book Service, Idara Islamiyat-e-Diniyat).
  • AbdulWahid Hamid, Graded Steps in Qur’an Reading: Student’s Edition (Uthmani Script) (MELS Publishing & Distributing).
  • AbdulWahid Hamid, Access to Qur’anic Arabic Set (with audio CDs) Muslim Education & Literacy Services (UK).
  • Abdallah Abbas Nadwi, Learn the Language of the Holy Qur’an (Iqra International Education Foundation).
  • Abdullah Abbas Nadwi, Vocabulary of the Holy Qur’an (Iqra International Education Foundation).
  • AbdulWahid Hamid, Easy Steps in Quran Reading: Pupil’s Book (Education & Literacy Services (UK).
  • AbdulWahid Hamid, Easy Steps in Quran Reading: Teacher’s and Self-Study Manual (Education & Literacy Services (UK).
  • Easy Steps in Arabic Handwriting – Workbook One (Muslim Education & Literacy Services (UK).
  • Easy Steps in Arabic Handwriting – Workbook Two (Muslim Education & Literacy Services (UK).
  • Muhammad Shamsul Haque, The Holy Qur’an: Part 30: Amma with tape: Surah al Fatiha, Section 1 of Surah al Baqarah, Ayatul Kursi, and Part 30 Surah Nas to Naba Namuk International Inc, MD (2001).
  • Nicholas Awde & Putros Samano, The Arabic Alphabet: How to Read & Write It (Lyle Stuart, Kensington Publishing Group, 1986).
  • V. Abdur Rahim, Let’s Begin to Read Arabic: A Beginner’s Guide to Learning the Arabic Language and the Qu’ran (Message of Islam, 2003).

Life of the Prophet Muhammad and His Companions

  • Martin Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources (Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, 1983).
  • Yahiya J. Emerick, Muhammad (Critical Lives) (Alpha, 2002).
  • Fethullah Gülen, The Messenger of God Muhammad (Somerset, NJ: Light Publishing).
  • Tariq Ramadan, In the Footsteps of the Prophet: Lessons from the Life of Muhammad (Oxford University Press, 2006).
  • Karen Armstrong, Muhammad: a Biography of the Prophet (San Fransisco: Harper, 1993).
  • Qadi Iyad, Ash-Shifa (Muhammad: Messenger of Allah), trans. By Aisha Abdur-Rahman Bewley (Madina Press, 2006).
  • AbdulWahid Hamid, Companions of the Prophet: Volumes 1 & 2 (Muslim Education & Literacy Services (UK)).
  • Muhammad ibn Sa‘d, The Women of Medina (Ta-Ha Publishers).
  • Sayyed Abul Hassan Ali Nadwi, Stories of the Prophets (UK Islamic Academy).

Collections of Prophetic Hadith

  • Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Din An-Nawawi, An-Nawawi’s Forty Hadith, trans. by Ezzedin Ibrahim and Denys Johnson-Davies (Cambridge, UK: Islamic Texts Society, 1997).
  • Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Din An-Nawawi, Forty Hadith Qudsi, trans. by Ezzedin Ibrahim and Denys Johnson-Davies.
  • Ashi Ilahi al-Bulandshehri, Provisions for the Seekers: a Manual of Prophetic Hadiths with Commentary, trans. by Abdur-Rahman ibn Yusuf, (White Thread Press).
  • Thomas Cleary, The Wisdom of the Prophet: the Sayings of Muhammad (Shambhala Publications, 2001).
  • Al-Amin Ali Mazrui, The Content of Character: Ethical Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, trans. Hamza Yusuf (Sandala, 2005).
  • Imam Bukhari, Al-Adab al-Mufrad: a Code for Everyday Living: the Examples of the Early Muslims (UK Islamic Academy, 2005).
  • Assad Nimer Busool, Bouquet of the Noble Hadith: 240 Hadith on Fada’il (Virtues) (Goodword Books, 2002).

Hadith Studies

  • M. Mustafa Al-Azami, Studies in Hadith Methodology and Literature (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1977).
  • Suhaib Hasan, An Introduction to the Science of Hadith (London: al-Qur’an Society, 1994).
  • Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi, Hadith Literature: its origin, development, special features and criticism.
  • Ahmad Von Denffer, Hadith: A Selected and Annotated Guide to Materials in the English Language (U.K.: The Islamic Foundation).

Understanding Islam (General)

  • Seyyed Hossein Nasr, The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity (HarperCollins, 2004).
  • R. Marston Speight, God is One: the Way of Islam (New York: Friendship Press, 2001).
  • Feisal Abdul Rauf, What’s Right with Islam: A New Vision for Muslims and the West (Harper San Francisco, 2004).
  • T.J. Winter and John A. Williams, Understanding Islam and the Muslims (Fons Vitae, 2002).
  • Bill Baker, More in Common than You Think: The Bridge between Islam and Christianity (Defenders Publications, 1998).
  • Mohammad A. Shomali, Shi´i Islam: Origins, Faith and Practices (Saqi Books, 2004).
  • Suzanne Haneef, What Everyone Should Know about Muslims and Islam (Kazi Publications).
  • Abdul Wahid Hamid, Islam the Natural Way (Muslim Education and Literary Services, 1996).

Prayer (salat and du’a) – manuals and meaning

  • Mamdouh N. Mohamed, Salaat: the Islamic Prayer from A to Z (ISBN: 0965287742).
  • M. A. K. Saqib, A Guide to Salah (Taha Publishers).
  • Asif Kidwai, Fatima M D’Oyen, What Should We Say?: A Selection of Prayers for Daily Use.
  • Imam Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad, The Prophetic Invocations (CD and Book) (Starlatch Press).
  • Daily Dua (Supplications), Goodword Books (Goodword Books, 2005).
  • Jamal A. Badawi, Selected Prayers (Taha Publications Ltd.).
  • Hasan Basri, Prayers for Forgiveness, trans. by Abdur-Rahman ibn Yusuf (White Thread Press, 2004).
  • Imam Zayn Al Abidin, The Psalms of Islam, trans. by William Chittick (1987).
  • Abu Hamid Muhammad Al-Ghazali, Inner Dimensions of Islamic Worship. Partial translation of Ihya ‘Ulum al-Din by Muhtar Holland (Leicester, U.K.: The Islamic Foundation, 1995).

Other Pillars of Islam

  • Mohammad Mazhar Hussaini, The Institution of Zakah: a Do-it-yourself Zakat Guide (Al-Meezan International, 1996).
  • Mohammad Mazhar Hussaini, The Institution of Fasting: a Do-it-yourself Zakat Guide (Al-Meezan International, 1988).
  • Ahmad H. Sakr, Fasting: Regulations and Practices.
  • Zakah and Sadaqah: an Outline of Basic Rulings (Saheeh International) (Abul Qasim Publishing House).
  • Sarwar Alam Raz, Handbook for Hajj and ‘Umrah (UK Islamic Foundation).
  • Michael Wolfe, The Hadj: an American’s Pilgrimage to Mecca (Grove Press, 1998).
  • Musharaf Hussain and Abia Afsar-Siddiqui, A Guide to Ramadan and Fasting (Taha Publishers).

Islamic Theology and Spirituality

  • B. Aisha Lemu, Islamic ‘Aqidah and Fiqh: a textbook of Islamic Belief and Jurisprudence, Junior Level, General (Chicago: Iqra Educational Foundation,1997).
  • B. Aisha Lemu, Islamic Tahdhib and Akhlaq: Theory and Practice, Junior Level, General (Chicago: Iqra Educational Foundation, 1997.
  • The Creed of Imam al-Tahawi (al-Aqidah al-Tahawiyyah), trans. and annoted by Hamza Yusuf (Hayward, CA: Zaytuna Institute, 2007).
  • Abu Hamid Muhammad Al-Ghazali, Faith in Divine Unity and Trust in Divine Providence, translated by David B. Burrell (Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, 2001).
  • Abu Hamid Muhammad Al-Ghazali, The Ninety-Nine Beautiful Names of God, translated by David B. Burrell and Nazih Daher (Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 1992).
  • Abu Hamid Muhammad Al-Ghazali, Al-Ghazali on the Rememberance of Death and the Afterlife: Book XL of the Revival of the Religious Sciences, trans. by T.J. Winter (Islamic Texts Society, 1989).
  • Kabir Helminski, The Book of Language: Exploring the Spiritual Vocabulary of Islam (The Book Foundation, 2006).
  • Ibn al Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Patience and Gratitude (UK: Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.).
  • Khurram Murad, In the Early Hours: Reflections on Spiritual and Self Development (UK Islamic Foundation).
  • Abdul Fattah Abu Ghudda, Islamic Manners (Awakening Publications, 2001).
  • Taha Jabir Alwani, The Ethics of Disagreement in Islam (Herndon, VA: The International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1993).
  • Sherman Jackson, On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2002)
  • Camille Helminski, The Book of Virtue: Writings on Virtue from Islamic and Other Sources (The Book Foundation, 2004).
  • Imam Abdallah ibn Alawi al-Haddad, Two Treatises on Mutual Reminding and Good Manners (Starlatch, 2002).

Muslim Women and Gender in Islam

  • Jamal Badawi, Gender Equity in Islam: basic principles (Plainfield, IN: American Trust Publications, 1995).
  • Aisha Bewley, Muslim Women: a Biological Dictionary (Taha Publications).
  • Donna Gehrke-White, The Face Behind the Veil: the Extraordinary Lives of Muslim Women in America (New York: Citadel Press, 2006).
  • Windows of Faith: Muslim Women Scholar-Activists in North America, ed. by Gisela Webb (Syracuse University Press, 2000).

Islam in America

  • Paul M. Barrett, American Islam: The Struggle for the Soul of a Religion (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006).
  • Geneive Abdo, Mecca and Main Street: Muslim Life in America after 9/11 (Oxford, 2006).
  • Sylviane A. Diouf, Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas (New York University Press, 1998).
  • Allan D. Austin, African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles (New York: Routledge, 1997).
  • Sherman Jackson, Islam and the Blackamerican: Looking Toward the Third Resurrection (Oxford University Press, 2005).
  • Umar Abd-Allah, A Muslim in Victorian America: the Life of Alexander Russell Webb (Oxford University Press, 2006).
  • Sulayman S. Nyang, Islam in the United States of America (ABC International Group, 1999).
  • Tariq Ramadan, Western Muslims and the Future of Islam (Oxford University Press, 2005).
  • The Autobiography of Malcolm X as Told to Alex Haley (Ballantine Books, 1987).
  • Jeffrey Lang, Struggling to Surrender: Some Impressions of an American Convert to Islam, rev. ed. (Amana Publications, 2000).
  • Zaid Shakir, Scattered Pictures: Reflections of An American Muslim: an anthology of essays (Nid Publishers, 2005).

Rules for Living

  • Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani, The Islamic Laws of Animal Slaughter (White Thread Press).
  • Muhammad Al-Jibali, The Inevitable Journey Part 1: Sickness: Regulations and Exhortations, 2nd. Ed. (Texas: al-Kitaab & as-Sunnah Publishing, 2003).
  • Muhammad Al-Jibali, The Inevitable Journey Part 2: Inheritance: Regulations and Exhortations, 2nd. Ed. (Texas: al-Kitaab & as-Sunnah Publishing, 2005).
  • Muhammad Al-Jibali, The Inevitable Journey: Part 3: Funerals Regulations and Exhortations (Texas: al-Kitaab & as-Sunnah Publishing).
  • Ghulam Mustafa Khan, Personal Hygiene in Islam (Taha Publications).

Family Life

  • Ekram and Mohamed Rida Beshir, Answers to Frequently Asked Questions on Parenting (Amana Publications, 2005).
  • Ekram and Mohamed Rida Beshir, Parenting Skills: Based on The Qur’an and Sunnah (Amana Publications, 2004).
  • Ekram and Mohamed Rida Beshir, Blissful Marriage (Amana Publications).
  • Muhammad Abdul Bari, Marriage and Family Building in Islam (Taha Publishers).

Islamic Ethics and Legal Studies

  • Mohammed Hashim Kamali, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 1991).
  • Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Freedom, Equality and Justice in Islam (Islamic Texts Society, 2002).
  • Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Freedom of Expression in Islam (Islamic Texts Society, 1994).
  • Kathleen M. Moore, Al-Mughtaribun: American Law and the Transformation of Muslim Life in the United States (Albany: State University of New York, 1995).
  • Deina Abdelkader, Social Justice in Islam (Herndon, VA: IIIT, 2000).
  • Feisal Abdul-Rauf, Islam: A Sacred Law, What Every Muslim Should Know about the Shari‘ah (Qiblah Books (Threshold Books), 2000).
  • Khaled Abou El Fadl, Speaking in God’s Name: Islamic Law, Authority and Women (Oxford: Oneworld, 2001).
  • Muhammad Abu Zahra, The Four Imams: their lives, works and their schools of thought (Dar al Taqwa, 2000).
  • Louay Safi, Peace and the limits of war: transcending classical conception of jihad (Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2001).
  • Camille Helminski, ed., The Book of Nature: a Sourcebook of Spiritual Perspectives on Nature and the Environment (The Book Foundation, 2006).
  • Khaled Abou El Fadl, Conference of the Books The Search for Beauty In Islam (University Press of America, July 2001).

Islam in History

  • Karen Armstrong, Islam: a short history (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2001).
  • Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. (get most recent edition).
  • Mark Graham, How Islam Created the Modern World (Amana Publications, 2006).
  • Richard Bulliet, The Case for Islamo-Christian Civilization, new ed. (Columbia University Press, 2006).
  • Howard R. Turner, Science in Medieval Islam: an Illustrated Introduction (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995).
  • John L. Esposito and John O. Voll, Islam and Democracy (Oxford University Press, 1996).

Understanding Anti-Muslim Bias

  • Edward Said, Covering Islam: How the media and the experts determine how we see the rest of the world (Vintage Books, 1997).
  • Jack Shaheen, Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Villifies a People (Interlink, 2001).
  • Norman Daniel, Islam and the West: the making of an image (Oneworld Press, 1993).